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奇石樂新一代碰撞測試假人——THOR

2020-07-15 22:28 企業新聞   來源:奇石樂精密機械設備(上海)有限公司

導讀在早期的車輛碰撞的測試過程中,被敲暈的豬和真人志愿者作為測試中的主體,往往置身于玻璃碎片四處飛濺中,在這種條件下,實驗測試者伴隨著巨大的危險。如今,隨著車輛碰撞測試假人的問世,這些高風險的測試已經發生了改變,高科技人體模型可為現代車輛的安全提供關鍵信息。在實驗測試使用假人中,配備著上百個傳感器,它們用于采集車輛碰撞中產生的加速度和力等傳感器的信息。當汽車發生猛烈的碰撞時,安全氣囊將會展開,作為專注于測試測量技術的企業,奇石樂正在研發新一代正面碰撞用假人就可以重現乘員撞入安全氣囊時面部受到的傷害。  

Stunned pigs and self-experimentation with showers of glass splinters – life in the early days of vehicle occupant testing was certainly an adventure! But nowadays, all that has changed thanks to crash test dummies: high-tech models of human beings that provide critical input for modern vehicle safety. Inside these plastic research assistants, hundreds of sensors capture the accelerations and forces that occur during collisions. Kistler, the measurement technology specialist, is building the latest generation of frontal dummies that can even reproduce the facial injuries caused when a vehicle occupant is hurled into an airbag.

在早期的車輛碰撞的測試過程中,被敲暈的豬和真人志愿者作為測試中的主體,往往置身于玻璃碎片四處飛濺中,在這種條件下,實驗測試者伴隨著巨大的危險。如今,隨著車輛碰撞測試假人的問世,這些高風險的測試已經發生了改變,高科技人體模型可為現代車輛的安全提供關鍵信息。在實驗測試使用假人中,配備著上百個傳感器,它們用于采集車輛碰撞中產生的加速度和力等傳感器的信息。當汽車發生猛烈的碰撞時,安全氣囊將會展開,作為專注于測試測量技術的企業,奇石樂正在研發新一代正面碰撞用假人就可以重現乘員撞入安全氣囊時面部受到的傷害。

Until the middle of the 20th century, it was taken for granted that the human body was no match for the forces generated during car accidents. There was general acceptance that road accidents would inevitably cause deaths – and back then, there was no shortage of reasons for this assumption: hard, sharp-edged metal fittings and the general absence of safety belts, to name but two. Then in the early 1950s, this widely-held belief prompted researchers to carry out the first accident tests. They had no hesitation in strapping human corpses into cockpits to study typical injuries, both internal and external. These experiments were followed by tests where volunteers were exposed to emergency braking, or even showers of glass splinters. But the pain threshold was soon reached – quite literally! – so the engineers went on to place stunned pigs, bears or monkeys behind the wheel for the more brutal tests.

直到20世紀中期,人們還理所當然地認為,人體無法承受車輛碰撞產生的沖擊力。當時的人們普遍相信,交通事故一定會造成死亡,這種想法在那個時代不無道理:那時的車輛使用堅硬、銳利的金屬配件制成,且普遍未配備安全帶。20世紀50年代初,在這種想法的推動下,研究人員開始了最初的車輛碰撞測試。他們將人類尸體放到駕駛艙,研究車輛碰撞對人體造成的典型內外傷。后來,志愿者自告奮勇,積極參與緊急制動等測試,甚至將自己置于四處飛濺的玻璃碎片之中。但是,人類顯然難以承受車輛碰撞造成的痛苦,于是,工程師將敲暈的豬、熊或猴子放到駕駛室中,代替志愿者進行更殘酷的測試。

Sensors to the rescue

傳感器技術,碰撞測試的新時代救星

Humans and animals were eventually spared from these perils by the arrival of Sierra Sam, the world's first crash test dummy. Developed for the United States Air Force back in 1949, Sierra Sam was the prototype for subsequent dummy models that were put to use for road crash tests just a few years later. To replicate reality as closely as possible, dummies came in all shapes and sizes: male and female, short and tall, young and old. However, what really revolutionized crash testing was not so much the variety of versions that were available, but the integration of technology into the dummies.

終于,世界上首個車輛碰撞測試用假人Sierra Sam的誕生,使人類和動物都得以逃離碰撞測試帶來的危險。Sierra Sam由美國空軍于1949年發明,幾年后被改裝為車輛碰撞測試用假人。為盡可能模仿真人,Sierra Sam系列包括多種體型、身高、年齡的男性和女性假人。然而,真正為車輛碰撞測試帶來革命性突破的并非體型、身高各異的假人,而是集成技術在假人中的應用。

This trend began in the early 1970s when the Hybrid I to III series of models from General Motors were fitted with the first sensors to measure force and acceleration in their heads, torsos and thighs. As technology improved, engineers equipped the models with additional sensors in parts of the body where injuries could prove fatal, such as the neck or the spinal column. Angular rate sensors also made it possible to measure bending of the limbs due to a collision.

20世紀70年代初,通用汽車發明了Hybrid I、II和III系列假人,率先在假人頭部、軀干和大腿處安裝測量力和加速度的傳感器。隨著科技發展,工程師在可能遭受致命傷害的其他人體部位也安裝了傳感器,例如頸部和脊椎。他們還使用角速度傳感器測量假人四肢在車輛碰撞中的彎曲情況。

Dummies get smart

假人智能化

For many years, the Hybrid III was regarded as the universal standard in the industry – until THOR pushed it out of the driver's seat. THOR – the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint – differs from its predecessor in many ways: with the help of extra facial sensors, for example, it achieves better resolution of the distributed forces that are generated when an occupant is flung into an airbag. THOR represents an average adult male, weighing in at 77 kilograms and with a height of 1.76 meters.

多年來,Hybrid III假人始終被視為行業通用標準——直到THOR假人取而代之,在車輛碰撞測試中成為乘員中主駕位置。與Hybrid III相比,THOR(人體乘員約束測試裝置)假人具有多種優勢,例如,它集成面部傳感器,可以更清晰地體現乘員撞入安全氣囊時面部受力的分布情況。THOR假人對標的人體模型為平均體重為77公斤、身高1.76米的成年男性。

To prepare this latest-generation crash dummy for real use, the measurement experts at Kistler equipped it with data acquisition caPACity for up to 288 measuring channels. Data is speedily exported from the wreck via one single Ethernet cable in the dummy's thorax. By contrast, THOR's forerunners with their tangle of wires looked more like puppets on many strings. Since 2018, Kistler has carried out the complete production process for THOR dummies at its Heidelberg site.

為將新一代碰撞測試用假人投入實際應用,奇石樂的測量專家為其裝配了多達288個測量通道的數據采集系統。僅需通過假人胸腔內的一根以太網線纜,就可以快速導出車輛碰撞后假人的測量數據。相比之下,THOR的“前輩”們身上纏繞著各種電線,仿佛一個個牽線木偶。2018年以來,奇石樂已在海德堡工廠完成了THOR假人的完整生產工藝。

Despite this impressive progress, dummy development has certainly not reached the end of the road yet: these "accident dolls" will become even smarter as time goes on, and further improvements such as more realistic replication of injuries to internal organs will become possible. Long ago, people believed that a car accident meant certain death – but thanks to crash dummies, that era is now well and truly over.

盡管取得了如此巨大的進步,車輛碰撞測試用假人的開發依然任重道遠。展望未來,假人將得到進一步優化,變得更加智能,例如,能夠更真實地復現人體內臟器官在車輛碰撞中受到的傷害。很久以前,人們認為交通事故一定會造成死亡——如今,得益于車輛碰撞測試用假人,那個時代已經一去不復返了。

 

云圖片

Kistler offers high-precision sensor technology and integrated data acquisition solutions for dummies of every type – and now, the portfolio also includes a proprietary THOR dummy that features flexible instrumentation.

奇石樂提供高精準傳感器和不同類型假人內置數采集成解決方案,現在,奇石樂自主研發的THOR假人系統已面世,它可靈活配置假人的通道信息。

 

云圖片

THOR represents an average adult male, weighing in at 77 kilograms and with a height of 1.76 meters.

THOR假人對標的人體模型為平均體重77公斤、身高1.76米的成年男性。

 

云圖片

Just one single cable in the dummy's thorax is needed to configure the sensors, transmit and synchronize the measurement data, and supply power – for as many as 288 channels.

僅需通過假人胸腔中的一根線纜(多達288個測量通道),即可完成傳感器配置以及測量數據的傳輸和同步,并滿足假人供電需求。

標簽:  奇石樂[5]
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